Modern Educational Reforms in India and the United States

By Veronica Lopez-Estrada, Virginia Davis and Maria Elena Reyes.

Published by The International Journal of Learner Diversity and Identities

Format Price
Article: Print $US10.00
Published online: January 17, 2017 $US5.00

The Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE) of India (2009) and the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act (2001) from the US are two legislative acts designed to address the challenges of low student performance and high dropout rates in public schools among specific student populations. In the US, the targeted student groups included traditionally underperforming racial/ethnic minority students, such as Hispanic/Latino, African American, and Native American students, and students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. In India, the identified target population included disadvantaged groups, especially those in rural areas and female students. The term “weaker sections” was used in the legislation to refer to students in India who belong to a scheduled caste, scheduled tribe, or other student group facing social, cultural, economic, geographical, linguistic, gender, or other disadvantages. In particular, female students in India have historically faced significant barriers to completing even a primary education. Problems with school performance among the identified groups in both countries have long been rooted in race/ethnicity and poverty. In the US, the significant difference in academic performance between the identified student groups and middle-class/white students is referred to as “the achievement gap.” RTE and NCLB follow a history of educational reform to improve educational systems that govern public schools. Although the differences between these federal laws are considerable, comparisons can be made.

Keywords: Education System, Historical Overview, Educational Reforms, NCLB Act (2001), India’s RTE (2009)

The International Journal of Learner Diversity and Identities, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp.1-10. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Published online: January 17, 2017 (Article: Electronic (PDF File; 309.733KB)).

Dr. Veronica Lopez-Estrada

Professor, Department of Teaching and Learning, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, Texas, USA

Dr. Virginia Davis

Associate Professor, School of Music, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, Texas, USA

Dr. Maria Elena Reyes

Professor, Department of Teaching and Learning, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, Texas, USA